Thyroid gland is an endocrine gland located in front of the neck, a butterfly like structure, which plays a vital role in regulating the metabolic activities and protein synthesis in the body. It releases 3 major hormones namely T3 and T4 from iodine and tyrosine; and Calcitonin. Hormonal release from thyroid gland is regulated by TSH from the anterior pituitary gland.
T3 (triiodothyronine) – 80 to 200 ng/dl
T4 (thyroxine) – 4.5 to 11.7 mcg/dl
TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) – 0.3 to 5.5 U/ml
Abnormal functioning can lead to
Hypothyroidism: Hypofunctioning or underactive gland can lead to hypothyroidism. Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of hypothyroidism worldwide. The symptoms are abnormal weight gain, menstrual irregularities in females, heavy menstrual bleeding, fatigue, laziness, constipation, hair loss, cold intolerance. It can be one of the important differential diagnostic factor for infertility.Primary hypothyroidism is most common and TSH levels are raised. Secondary hypothyroidism is less common and is due to pituitary or hypothalamic cause and TSH levels are low.
Hyperthyroidism: Hyper functioning or excessive production of thyroid hormones can lead to hyperthyroidism. The symptoms are weight loss, increased appetite, tremors, palpitations, anxiety, nervousness, diarrhea, and heat intolerance, hair loss and muscle weakness
Autoimmune thyroid: Hashimoto’s and Grave’s diseases are autoimmune thyroid disorders. Hashimoto hypothyroidism is more common in females than males, and is common in developed countries.
Thyroid nodule: Thyroid nodules are often found on the gland and majority do not cause any symptoms except pressure on the surrounding structures. Simple cysts, colloid nodule and thyroid adenoma are benign conditions. Euthyroid is a condition where nodule is present but thyroid hormones are in normal range. If many nodules are present, then termed as multinodular gotre
Goiter: Enlarged thyroid gland is called goiter. Goiter may be associated with hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, relating to the underlying cause of goiter.
Investigations: Thyroid function test, Free T3 and T4, Ultrasound, FNAC, Anti TPO antibodies, CT of thyroid
Role of Homeopathy: At Sathyam Homoeopathy, constitutional remedies are prescribed based on totality of symptoms (physical and mental characteristics of an individual and present symptomatology). With the stimulation of the vital force the gland functions normally and reverts back to normal condition and tapering of the supplement/dose is very important in prognosis. In a longer follow ups, the doses can be tapered to zero or to minimal dose (as higher doses can result in more side effects).